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Glossary

What Is ADHD? ↓
What Is ADHD? Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is a neurobehavioral disorder characterized by a combination of inattentiveness, distractibility, hyperactivity, and impulsiveness. Five to seven percent of children, most of them boys, are diagnosed with this developmental disorder. Some simply cannot concentrate; some become disruptive and defiant and have trouble getting along with parents, peers, or teachers. ADHD is controversial: Is it a disorder at all or a collection of behaviors normally occurring in the population but less tolerated in today’s high-demand world? There are competing theories about what, if anything, goes wrong in the brain, although executive functioning (attention, emotion regulation, and decision-making) is invariably affected. Up to 50 percent of children eventually outgrow the condition, but even if they do, earlier developmental delays may create enduring learning problems. Everything from genes to lead exposure in older homes to sugar intake has been implicated in ADHD. Experts disagree whether treatment should be behavioral (training of attention, more play, more structure) or pharmacological (stimulants such as Ritalin and Adderall), although a combination of both may work best. Work, school, and managing household tasks can be very challenging for people with ADD and ADHD. Fortunately, sufferers can learn coping skills to work around shortcomings and harness talents–as many successful people with ADD have done.
What is Autism? ↓

What is Autism? A pervasive developmental disorder, autism affects information processing in multiple ways. Many people with autism have difficulties with social interactions and communication, sensory deficits, and poor motor coordination. Autistic people often have restricted interests and engage in repetitive behaviors. Because autism's symptoms vary greatly, it's said to exist on a spectrum, and is increasing referred to as Autism Spectrum Disorder. (Asperger's is a condition often referred to as "high functioning" autism.) Some people with autism have low intelligence while others are quite intelligent. Autism usually manifests by age two. It affects far more males than females. The frequency of diagnosis has surged over the past 20 years. No one knows for sure what causes autism, but numerous studies link it to advanced maternal and/or paternal age at conception. Reports implicating mercury-containing vaccines have proved baseless, although there is some evidence that environmental toxins may play a role. Some research suggests that autism reflects an "extreme male brain," because people with the condition often have an obsession with details and systemizing but are low on empathizing ability. There is no cure for autism, although some symptoms may ameliorate over the years.

Adolescence ↓
A time of both disorientation and discovery, adolescence describes the teenage years between 13 and 19. With increasing rates of early-onset puberty, the preteen or "tween" years (ages 9-12) may also qualify. No longer children but not yet adults, adolescents struggle with issues of independence and self-identity. There may be experimentation with drugs and alcohol or sexuality. Peer groups and external appearance tend to increase in importance.
Child Development ↓
The speedy physical and psychological changes that children undergo from birth through adolescence often leave parents wondering how best to care for them at each stage. From how to talk so kids will listen to when to back off and allow them to fail, PT's experts weigh in.
Bath Salts ↓

It is the "street name" for a family of designer drugs often containing substituted cathinones which have the similar effects to amphetamine and cocaine. It is also known as Arctic Blast.  The white crystals resemble lega bathing products like epsom salts. They have nothing to do with actual bath salts.

Dripping ↓

Dropping e-cigarette liquid directly onto the hot coils of the device to produce thicker, more flavorful smoke — a new study found. "Dripping," which differs from normal e-cigarette use that slowly releases the liquid from a wick onto a hot atomizer, may expose users to higher levels of nicotine and to harmful non-nicotine toxins, such as formaldehyde and acetaldehyde — known carcinogens.

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